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The effect of QRS on the human aging process
Cells cannot divide and renew indefinitely in the course of our lives, but have a natural renewal limit  . The division limit differs depending on the cell type. However, stem cells are less affected by the limitation  . The cellular division limit primarily affects the regenerative capacity of injured or damaged tissue or organs and carries an increased risk of health problems associated with the aging process  .
Old or used cells are eliminated by the immune system. But the immune system is also subject to the aging process. This leads to an accumulation of aged cells in the course of aging  . These release a cocktail of enzymes and signal substances such as matrix metalloproteinases (physiological functions in processes) that attack the extracellular matrix (tissue in the connective tissue) or promote inflammatory reactions.
In this study, we concentrate on epigenetic, mitochondrial, cellular, and on physiological processes and less on external antiaging medicine. Nevertheless, there are equally interesting findings, for example the detection of rejuvenation effects (effect of skin rejuvenation), which, however, are less relevant from a medical point of view in this elaboration.
To provide serious, scientific-biophysical evidence of the effects of QRS on the aging process requires the respective “individual processes” and influencing factors to be compared with the QRS effect model. In the following, we explain the influence of QRS on the individual factors that have to be taken into account in the aging process - in relation to the cell processes. Of course, prevention is better than cure, but QRS can also support the therapy of existing problems.
Influence of QRS on blood circulation
QRS acts directly on the vascular system, which is evident both in angiogenesis (growth of blood vessels)  and in an increase in capillary blood flow (blood flow through the finest branches of the blood vessels). Behind this is a QRS-stimulated nitrogen monoxide (NO) formation in the small blood vessels  , which also has to do with the fact that NO naturally determines blood flow regulation  .
The background to this physiology was “uncovered” by the new magnetic stimulation procedure QRS rPMS (QRS Pelvicenter). The (high-intensity) repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation has a number of common basic properties with the (low-intensity) classic QRS magnetic field therapy.
It was found that there was a magnetic field-induced increase in NO via an increase in the enzyme eNOS (endothelial nitrogen monoxide synthetase)  .
With the relaxation of the smooth vascular muscle cells due to this, endothelium-lined arterioles (smallest arteries upstream of the microscopic capillaries) expand, which is all the more important because the resulting increased blood flow after a QRS application for min. 3 hours can be proven to remain  ,  .
At the same time, the flow properties of the blood improve because eNOS also inhibits platelet aggregation (platelet aggregation). In addition, a resulting increase in the signal molecule AKT (protein kinase B) and in VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) "fuels" angiogenesis (growth of blood vessels)  ,  . QRS-stimulated angiogenesis is also carried out by the endothelial growth factor FGF-2 (process control of angiogenesis)  .
Thanks to the microcirculation-increasing and angiogenic platelet aggregation potential (aspirin effect), QRS can prevent or at least reduce the gradual development of "clinically silent" circulatory disorders. Prevention of age-influencing degeneration processes, such as arteriosclerosis and its concomitant diseases, is thus possible.
Influence of QRS on cell voltage
Optimal cell tension (or membrane potential) directly or indirectly "controls" wound healing  ,  ,  ,  and promotes cell regeneration  . It is known from the QRS literature on magnetic stimulation that an electromagnetic field creates a voltage on the mitochondrial cell membrane  . This leads to some physiological / “pathological” changes, such as an opening of the mitochondrial pore complex  .
QRS can increase the cellular membrane potential, whereby this effect is based both on the knowledge of the cellular “defense reaction” and on the results of a pilot study on microcurrent therapy. With an increase in membrane potential, QRS reveals a notable vitality and vigilance potential (activation of the nervous system).
Influence of QRS on the cell power plants
The reason why endurance performance increases through physical endurance training is because muscular activity increases the intracellular Ca ++ concentration, which in turn activates the Ca-Calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMK)  . This sets in motion an entire reaction chain, at the end of which the number of mitochondria (ATP energy producers within the cell) increases permanently  ,  . Accordingly, athletic people have more mitochondria in their muscle cells than unsportsmanlike athletes and are also in better condition due to the associated increased ATP production.
A QRS magnetic field stimulation can increase the intracellular Ca ++ according to the process chain principle through physical movement. As a result, the same, positive stimulating effects on mitochondrial reduplication can be expected, which, although they are less than due to a movement-related stress situation, are in the measurable area and involved in the possible success of therapy.
Influence of QRS on energy production
The basic principle of the QRS system basically leads to an increased demand for ions at the interfaces of the outer cell membrane (Int.QRS patent for the transport of ions) and thus increases the leakage currents (ionic current that flows through nerve cells in the rest state through open potassium channels ) towards the cytosol (sodium). The potassium channel is also affected, so that fewer potassium ions drift outwards.
Graphic: (1) The sodium potassium pump is initially only facing the inside of the cell and is only open to this side. The ion pump contains special carrier proteins (carrier proteins) to which only potassium and sodium ions can dock. The carrier proteins for potassium are deactivated at the moment when the ion pump is open to the intracellular space. So only sodium ions can dock to the three binding sites. (2) When all carrier proteins of the same type are occupied, the mechanism of the pump flips over, whereby the ion pump opens towards the extracellular space and closes towards the intracellular space. With this mechanism, the cell ensures that only the ions it is transporting really change the membrane side. (3) The process is now repeated with potassium: the potassium ions attach to the two docking points of the carrier proteins. (4) The mechanism flips over and releases the two potassium ions into the cell interior.
The cellular membrane potential drops, which, as a counter-reaction, results in the ion channels being closed. At the same time, the ion pumps try to restore the membrane potential setpoint.
The result is to be understood as the reaction of the cell, which forces a switch from anaerobic to aerobic energy production: The increased energy requirement for the ion pumps, which are already at rest for min. 40% of the cell's own ATP production (adenosine triphosphate, energy production) corresponds to the immediate (within 60 seconds) conversion from anaerobic (little oxygen) to aerobic (lots of oxygen) energy production.
Since both the ion pumps and the mitochondrial energy generation always work in a temporally overlapping "mode" (20 to 30 minutes), a higher membrane potential (cell voltage) always arises after a QRS session and there is a higher availability of ATP during the QRS application.
QRS has the basic initial moment of an aerobic energy requirement, with the consequence of a subsequent increased mitochondrial ATP energy production. All cellular reactions initiate "cell management", which is why a medium to long-term QRS therapy can lead to a positive result.
Influence of QRS on the stress system
The oxidative damage theory (damage caused by excessive amounts of reactive oxygen compounds) states that free oxygen radicals, which mainly arise as a “by-product” in the form of ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) within aerobic energy production (further sources are environmental toxins, exhaust gases or eg cigarette smoke), Damage the cell membrane and the cell nucleus and thus accelerate aging and shorten the lifespan  .
At the molecular level, QRS can positively influence the intracellular redox status (electron transfer)  , which promotes the expression (information realization) of stress-related proteins  . While the ROS increases with a single QRS application, the ROS level decreases significantly after repeated applications (> 3)  . Hypersensitive people may notice the increase in ROS when using QRS for the first time through a slight worsening of symptoms, which, however, normalizes after the second application.
This possible reaction is interpreted as a stimulation of the body's own antioxidant defense mechanisms, the "hormesis principle", which plays an important role in increasing membrane potential and ATP according to QRS. An activation of the body's own antioxidant defense system or reduced ROS after QRS is confirmed by studies  ,  .
Influence of QRS on heart rate variability
A 20-minute QRS session can improve heart rate variability (HRV)  , which is all the more important because HRV is the measure of good vegetative regulation. An examination of different setting parameters (intensity) showed, for example, that a QRS application mainly affects the sympathetic nervous system  .
The HRV determination showed that the VLF (Very Low Frequencies), which stand for the sympathetic nervous system, recovered faster after a previous stress exposure under QRS than the placebo group. Overall, a 20-minute QRS application led to an improvement in HRV.
HRV is also a central marker for determining performance and vigilance (vigilance)  . A deterioration in vigilance is very closely linked to changes in the autonomic nervous system, which is very sensitive to internal demands and external influences. In an HRV-controlled study, QRS use - compared to the control group - led to a significant improvement in vigilance  .
Influence of QRS on sleep
Adequate sleep has a high impact on a healthy and long life, or vice versa, too little sleep recovery can lead to considerable physical and health disorders, which can also affect life expectancy.
In an evidence-based study, a total of 101 patients with sleep disorders (difficulty falling asleep, problems sleeping through and nightmares) were treated with the QRS system for 4 weeks  . The parameters sleep time, number of sleep interruptions, sleepiness after getting up, daytime tiredness, difficulty concentrating and daytime headache were checked.
The double-blind, placebo-controlled sleep study showed that 70% of the QRS group experienced an improvement in their sleep problems: 24% reported a significant improvement, 40% a partial improvement and 6% a slight improvement.
Influence of QRS on stem cells
Stem cells can be found in all mammalian tissues and are used for regeneration and repair after injuries and self-renewal. The relevant QRS effect is primarily to be found in a slight increase in stem cell proliferation  ,  ,  ,  .
Isolated and cultivated stem cells are already used for the treatment of diseases of the heart  , the liver  ,  ,  ,  or also for neurogenerative diseases  . For example, a study under specific frequency settings of the magnetic field leads to neurogenesis in the hippocampus (formation of nerve cells in the limbic brain part) of adult mice, the place where long-term storage of memory contents takes place  .
With a 14- and 28-day QRS application under study-specific settings, there was an increasing increase in demyelinated areas (re-myelination) in animal experiments, whereby the level of MBP (Myelin Basic Protein) as well as the BrdU and Nestin -positive stem cells increased.
This indicates that QRS can potentiate the proliferation (growth and division) and migration (migration) of neuronal stem cells (precursors of nerve cells) and thus improve myelin repair (repair of the fiber insulation layer)  .
There are a number of in-vitro as well as in-vivo studies (animal experiments) for electromagnetic pulse stimulation of stem cells, which clearly underline the immense importance for possible cell renewal.
QRS can stimulate the proliferation (growth and multiplication) of stem cells. Whether epigenetic mechanisms play a role here is secondary. In any case, this potential can be transferred to all tissues, since the current study situation relates not only to tissue repair and wound healing after injuries, but also generally to neurons of the CNS (central nervous system) and bone and cartilage formation.
Influence of QRS on fracture healing / pseudarthrosis / osteoporosis prophylaxis
Fracture healing / pseudarthrosis  ,  as well as osteoporosis prophylaxis and its therapy  ,  ,  ,  ,  are among the main areas of application for QRS. Proliferation and mineralization of the osteoblasts, with simultaneous inhibition of the osteoclast genesis, were found  ,  ,  . Stimulation of chondrocyte proliferaton was also observed  .
This happens because of the piezoelectric properties (electrical voltage due to movement / deformation) of the collagen matrix (structural proteins) and electrokinetic effects ("streaming potentials") after natural movements combined with mechanical stress on the bones give rise to electrical potentials  ,  ,  . The same effect can basically be simulated by QRS because the QRS system is based on piezoelectric properties (pushing and pulling ions)  .
Influence of QRS on electromagnetic receptors
Electromagnetic “irritation” (occupation) of cellular, electromagnetic membrane receptors (signal receivers) leads to the formation of messenger substances (signal transmission substances), which are responsible for almost all cell actions as so-called second messengers (eg cAMP and Ca ++ ) [62 ] ,  , whereby a distinction must be made between metabotropic ("receptor extends into the cell and releases secondary messenger substance") and ionotropic receptor ("opens an ion channel"). Also transmembrane receptors that react to the electromagnetic “irritation” (parathyroid hormone, insulin, transferrin or calcitonin) are activated, which end in a signal cascade (biological signal running over several stations)  .
The protein kinase ERK (regulation in energy metabolism) is also important, since the ERK signaling pathway controls important cell functions such as proliferation (growth / multiplication) and differentiation (cell or tissue development). ERK can be activated by various extracellular signals as well as by QRS, electromagnetically by signal transduction (signal transmission)  ,  . An increased QRS-related mitochondrial activity in the bone tissue can be demonstrated via the ERK1 / 2 signal cascade  .
Taking into account the main influencing factors of the aging process, there is study evidence that confirms an age-influencing positive effect by the QRS system.
QRS can inhibit cellular degradation processes by using the messenger substances cAMP and Ca ++ to initiate a multitude of growth and multiplication processes in cell and tissue development (proliferation and differentiation processes) including mitochondrial multiplication (multiplication of cell power plants).
In addition to a higher membrane potential, the goal is also to achieve higher energy production through increased ATP production. Not only the universal and immediately available energy supply, but also the regulation of important energy supplying processes is an intended consequence.
In addition, gene activity can be synchronized by QRS stimulation of cryptochromes (binding of cellular proteins). rRNAs (conversion of genetic information into proteins) trigger apoptosis (programmed cell death), which is so important for cell renewal, or increasingly produce stimulated fibroblasts (build-up and breakdown of the intercellular substance) of collagen (structural proteins in the connective tissue).
QRS can activate the body's own antioxidative system, which is important insofar as supplementation with the antioxidative vitamins C and E prevents the necessary protein synthesis for muscle building in sports and bone building in the elderly, which is why the use of QRS is especially useful for combating free radicals is preferable to giving vitamins (C + E).
Just as lifestyle and social interactions can influence epigenetic methylation (switching genes on or off), this can also be done to a certain extent and in a positive sense by using QRS. Although the influence of external, epigenetic signals, such as those generated by QRS, cannot be rated equally high compared to hereditary epigenetics ("epigenetic clock"), the possibilities of influence that can be achieved by QRS make one - outside of genetic predispositions (genetic susceptibility to disease) - possible antiaging or a life-prolonging effect.
Heart rate variability (HRV) has been shown to improve under QRS, which corresponds to a support for the ability to regulate vegetatively and can thus have a beneficial influence on biological age.
In the overall assessment it should be noted that the QRS systems QRS 101 Home System and QRS 310 Doctor System have a therapeutically reasonable range of variance, through which there is justified potential to be able to intervene to a certain extent in the area of influence of the aging process. QRS can make a greater or lesser contribution to enabling a longer life in good health in old age.
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